Page semi-protected

Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone
Capitol Hill Organized Protest
CHOP on June 9, 2020
CHOP on June 9, 2020
Nickname(s): 
CHAZ or CHOP
Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone is located in Seattle WA Downtown
Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone
Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone
The zone's location in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle
Coordinates: 47°36′54.5″N 122°19′2.83″W / 47.615139°N 122.3174528°W / 47.615139; -122.3174528
StatusSelf-declared autonomous zone
EstablishedJune 8, 2020 (2020-06-08)
Area clearedJuly 1, 2020 (2020-07-01)
Government
 • TypeConsensus decision-making by daily meeting of protesters

The Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ), also known as Free Capitol Hill, the Capitol Hill Occupied Protest, or the Capitol Hill Organized Protest (CHOP), was an occupation protest and self-declared autonomous zone in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle, Washington, United States. The zone, originally covering six city blocks and a park, was established on June 8, 2020 by George Floyd protesters after the Seattle Police Department (SPD) left its East Precinct building, and was cleared of occupants by police on July 1, 2020.

The zone's formation in the Capitol Hill neighborhood was preceded by a week of tense interactions between protesters and police in full riot gear that began on June 1 and escalated on June 7, after a man drove his vehicle into the protesters and shot one of them (near 11th Ave. and Pine St.). Tear gas, flash bangs, and pepper spray were repeatedly used by police in the densely populated residential neighborhood. The mayor issued a ban on tear gas on June 5. City, county, and state representatives joined demonstrators on the front lines on June 6, when flash bangs and pepper spray were used on the crowd. On June 7, the SPD reported that the crowd was throwing rocks, bottles, fireworks, and shining green lasers into officers eyes. Near midnight on June 8, tear gas was deployed again, despite the ban. Later that morning, police boarded up and moved out of the East Precinct in an effort to de-escalate the situation.

The zone was a self-organizing space without official leadership. The protesters united around three main demands: 1) cut Seattle’s $409 million police budget by 50 percent, 2) shift funding to community programs and services in historically Black communities, and 3) ensure that protesters would not be charged with crimes. Within the first fews days of formation, activity in the area rapidly expanded into a number of directions including the arts, music, dialog and resource exchange. Participants created a block-long "Black Lives Matter" mural, provided free film screenings in the open street, and performed live music. A "No Cop Co-op" was formed, brimming with food, hand sanitizer, and supplies. Areas were set up to serve expression of free speech and to facilitate discourse, and including the construction of a community vegetable garden.

The zone swiftly became a focus of national attention when President Donald Trump tweeted disapproval, on June 10 and again on June 11, referring to the occupants as "ugly Anarchists" and demanding that the governor of Washington and the mayor of Seattle "take back" the zone. Mayor Jenny Durkan described the area on June 11 as four blocks in Seattle with a block party atmosphere, a common occurrence for Capitol Hill, stating that "It's not an armed takeover. It's not a military junta."  On June 14, USA Today confirmed a festive environment, comparing the protest to a miniature version of Burning Man. The following week, on June 22, the atmosphere had become more charged, as demonstrators marched and armed volunteer guards kept watch. SPD Chief Carmen Best expressed that the department was looking to reduce their footprint, but later clarified that officials aimed to return officers to the precinct, as it was paramount they were able to respond to calls in a timely fashion.

On June 12, Black Lives Matter protesters negotiated with local officials to leave the zone. The size of CHOP decreased four days later, when roadblocks were replaced and moved. CHOP continued to shrink in size following shootings in or near the zone on June 20, 21, and 23 when some occupiers left. Durkan responded that the SPD would return peacefully and in the near future. On June 28, she met with protesters and informed them that the city planned to remove most barricades and limit the area with activists to the East Precinct building and the street directly in front of it. That day CHOP organizers also expressed their intension to refocus on the area near the police station and away from the sprawling encampment at Cal Anderson Park, after it became a political liability as they struggled to maintain security. In the early morning hours of June 29, a fourth shooting left a 16-year-old boy dead and a 14-year-old boy in critical condition with gunshot injuries. Calling the situation "dangerous and unacceptable", SPD Chief Best told reporters, "Enough is enough. We need to be able to get back into the area."

On July 1, 2020, after the mayor issued an executive order, Seattle police cleared the area of protesters and reclaimed the East Precinct station. Protests continued in the streets of Seattle in the days following the closure of the zone.

Background

Modified sign for the SPD East Precinct, with "people" spray painted over the word "police" on June 13, 2020

Capitol Hill is a densely populated residential district situated on a steep hill just east of the city's downtown central business district, known for its prominent LGBT and counterculture communities, as well as its colorful vibrant nightlife. The city of Seattle was previously a center for other mass protests, such as the 1999 Seattle WTO protests and Occupy Seattle, The city is also home to several cultural institutions that were created through occupation protests, including the Northwest African American Museum, the Daybreak Star Cultural Center, and El Centro de la Raza.

Protests over the killing of George Floyd and police brutality began in Seattle on May 29, 2020. For nine consecutive days there were street clashes in greater Seattle involving protesters, the Seattle Police Department (SPD), Washington State Patrol, and Washington National Guard.

Capitol Hill clashes (June 1–8)

The formation of the zone was preceded by a week of tense interactions in the Capitol Hill neighborhood that began on June 1, when protesters and police in full riot gear began to face off at a barricade police had set up near the SPD's East Precinct building. The SPD used aggressive dispersal tactics, including blast balls, flash bang grenades, and pepper spray. On June 5, Mayor Jenny Durkan and SPD Chief Carmen Best announced a 30-day ban on the use of tear gas.

At the request of citizens, on June 6, a group of public representatives (including four City Council-members, a King County Council-member, state Senator Joe Nguyen, and state Representative Nicole Macri) joined demonstrators on the front lines when officers again used flash bang grenades and pepper spray to control the crowd.

Protesters gathering at the SPD East Precint's western barricade on June 7

During the daytime on June 7, police installed sturdier barricades around the East Precinct and boarded up its windows. The situation further intensified that evening after 8 pm, when a demonstrator was shot while trying to slow down a vehicle being driven at excessive speed towards a crowd of 1,000 protesters on 11th Avenue and East Pine Street; the driver then exited the vehicle with a gun and walked towards the police line where he was taken into custody without further incident. It became known that the shooter's brother worked at the East Precinct. Several hours later, after police reported that protesters were throwing bottles, rocks, and fireworks, SPD resumed the use of tear gas (despite the mayor's ban), and released pepper spray and flash-bang grenades, on protesters at 11th and Pine, just after midnight on June 8. Over 12,000 complaints were filed about the police response to the demonstrations, and members of the Seattle city council questioned how many weapons had in fact been thrown at the police.

Police boarded up and vacated the East Precinct in the afternoon of June 8 in an effort to de-escalate the situation and rebuild trust. Protesters, initially suspicious of the SPD's motives, moved into the area, re-positioned the street barricades at a one-block radius from the station, and declared the area "Free Capitol Hill". Days after the event, it remained unclear who had made the decision to retreat from the East Precinct. Mayor Durkan latter attributed the decision to withdraw to an unnamed on-scene commander for SPD.

Territory

Aid station at the Bobby Morris Playfield backstop on June 3

The zone was initially centered around the East Precinct building. Barriers were set up on Pine Street for several blocks in order to prevent traffic from passing. The early territory reportedly encompassed five and a half city blocks, including a public park. It stretched north to East Denny Way, east to 12th Avenue (and partially 13th Avenue), south to East Pike, and west to Broadway. Cal Anderson Park was active with demonstrators. Protesters used blockades and fences to construct staggered barricades at intersections. One entrance to the zone's territory was marked by a barrier reading "You Are Entering Free Capitol Hill" on June 9. Other signs declared "You are now leaving the USA." The signage on the police station was modified, as protesters rebranded it the "Seattle People's Department East Precinct" amid graffiti with anarchist symbols (according to one report).

On June 16, after city officials came to an agreement with protest organizers on a new footprint, Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT) crews installed concrete barriers wrapped in plywood in several areas of the zone along Pine Street, 10th Ave., and 12th Ave., effectively shrinking the area. The revised barrier spacing provided improved access for business deliveries and logistics, whereas the design (concrete with added plywood) offered space for decoration by artists affiliated with the protests. The new layout was posted on Mayor Durkan's blog, which explained: "The City is committed to maintaining space for community to come to together, protest and exercise their first amendment rights. Minor changes to the protest zone will implement safer and sturdier barriers to protect individuals in this area."

An entrance to the zone on June 13

KIRO Radio reported that on June 17, a large tent encampment had been set up on 11th between Pike and Pine Streets and that half of Cal Anderson Park had been "turned into a huge tent encampment with a massive community garden."

The borders of the zone were not clearly defined, and were known to shift daily.

The size of CHOP was reduced over time, with The Seattle Times reporting that the area had "shrunk considerably" by June 24. The demonstrators redirected their focus around the East Precinct on June 23 when "the Capitol Hill protest zone camp cleared parts of its Cal Anderson Park core."

On June 30, police and other city employees removed a number of the concrete barricades, while concentrating others into an area closer to the East Precinct. That same day, notices were posted to announce a noon closure of Cal Anderson Park for cleaning and repairs, with the garden and art created by protesters to remain undisturbed.

The remaining territory was reclaimed by Seattle police on July 1, 2020. That same day, Cal Anderson Park was reportedly closed for repairs.

Culture and amenities

Services

The No Cop Co-op on June 10

Protesters established the No Cop Co-op on June 9, 2020, offering free water, hand sanitizer, and snacks donated by the community, along with kebabs. Stalls were set up which offered cuisine such as vegan curry while others collected donations for the homeless. Organizers pitched tents next to the former precinct in order to hold the space. Two medical stations were established in the zone to deliver basic health care. The SDOT provided portable toilets. The city provided services to the area, including waste removal, portable toilets, and fire and rescue services; the SPD also stated they responded to 911 calls within the area. The King County public health department provided COVID-19 testing in Cal Anderson Park for a period of time during the protests.

Community gardens

Vegetable gardens began to materialize prior to June 11 in Cal Anderson Park, where activists started to grow a variety of food products from seedlings. The gardens were initiated by a single basil plant, introduced by Marcus Henderson, a resident of the Columbia City neighborhood of Seattle. Activists expanded the gardens that were "cultivated by and for BIPOC" (those who are black, indigenous, or people of color) and included signage heralding famous black agriculturalists alongside commemorations of victims of police violence.

The Seattle Times on June 11 reported that restaurant owners in the area had an uptick in walk-up business and a concomitant reduction in delivery costs. However, on June 14, USA Today reported that most businesses in the zone had closed, "although a liquor store, ramen restaurant and taco joint are still doing brisk business". Activists lived in tents inside the zone. Outside the zone, urban camping is illegal in Seattle, though even before the zone this law was seldom enforced.

Discourse

Arts and culture

Visitors at CHOP's co-op on June 14

The intersection of 12th and Pine was converted into a square for teach-ins, where a microphone was used to encourage people who were there with destructive intentions to leave the area. An area at 11th and Pine was set aside as the "Decolonization Conversation Café", a discussion area with daily topics. On June 9, an outdoor cinema with a sound system and projector was set up and used to screen open-air movies including 13th, Ava DuVernay's documentary about racism and mass incarceration, and Paris Is Burning, the 1990 documentary film from Jennie Livingston.

The Marshall Law Band, a Seattle-based hip-hop fusion group, began performing for protesters on June 8, continuing for "nearly a week" to play sets for several hours at a time.

A block-long street mural saying "Black Lives Matter" was painted June 10–11, located on East Pine Street between 10th and 11th Avenues. Individual letters in the mural were uniquely painted by local artists of color, with supplies purchased through donations from demonstrators and passersby.

Shrines

Visitors lit candles and left flowers at three shrines, which featured photographs and notes expressing sentiments related to George Floyd and other victims of police brutality. On June 19, special events ranging from a "grief ritual" to a dance party were held in observation of Juneteenth.

Vegetable gardens planted during CHOP in Cal Anderson Park

Internal governance

Western entrance on June 10, with a sign echoing Free Derry Corner

Occupants of the zone favored consensus decision-making, in the form of general assembly, with daily meetings and discussion groups, as an alternative to selecting designated leaders. According to City Journal on June 10, former mayoral candidate Nikkita Oliver held a major role within in the zone.

On June 11, observers described the burgeoning activity at the early zone as hybrids of other movements, with an atmosphere that was "part protest, part commune", a cross between "a sit-in, a protest and summer festival", or a blend of "Occupy Wall Street and a college independent cooperative dorm." Vox stated, in an article from June 16, that CHAZ had evolved into "a center of peaceful protest, free political speech, co-ops, and community gardens" after protesters recovered from their initial confusion over the choice by police to leave the precinct.

Protesters held frequent town halls to decide strategy and make plans. Seattle officials saw no evidence of Antifa umbrella groups organizing in the zone. On June 15, SPD Chief Best said, "There is no cop-free zone in the city of Seattle." Best indicated officers would go into the zone if there were threats to public safety: "I think that the picture has been painted in many areas that shows the city is under siege", she added. "That is not the case."

Misinformation about the zone's governance circulated. According to Snopes, conservative social media personality Andy Ngo shared a video on June 15 of Seattle-based hip hop artist Raz Simone distributing a rifle from the trunk of his car to another protester on June 8 (the day the zone was first established), after "rumors developed that members of the right-wing group Proud Boys were going to move into the protest area to set fires and stir chaos." CNN later referred to Simone as the zone's "de facto leader", a characterization that he denied.

Names for the area

The Uprising (8:46)
Short film on the development of CHOP
The Seattle Times, July 4, 2020
From the streets to the CHOP how Seattle's protests have evolved

The protest area was identified by several names, with the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ) most common at the outset, along with Free Capitol Hill. By the second week of formation, the area was more often referred to as the Capitol Hill Organized (Occupied) Protest (CHOP).

On June 13, a group of several dozen informal protest leaders agreed to change the name from CHAZ to CHOP. The name change was the result of a consensus among participants to deemphasize occupation. TechCrunch further clarified the underlying logic at work stating that participants decided to change the name to "the Capitol Hill Occupied Protest — then, noting the fact that Seattle itself is an “occupation” of native land, change the O to Organized."

KUOW reported that pavement at one intersection was repainted on June 14 with the new acronym CHOP following a discussion in which many of the most active participants had agreed to officially revise the name to the Capitol Hill Organized Protest for better accuracy. Other media reported the name change on June 15 (King5 and The Stranger), June 16 (Vox), and June 17 (Crosscut).

Shrine to victims of police brutality near the SPD East Precinct on June 14

Demands

The stated goals of the protesters varied initially but settled on three main demands: 1) cut funding for city police by fifty percent, 2) redistribute the funds into community efforts such as restorative justice and health care, and 3) ensure that protesters would not be charged with crimes.

One early list, released June 9 in a blog post attributed to "The Collective Black Voices at Free Capitol Hill" on Medium, outlined 30 demands including calls to defund the SPD and reallocate those funds to community health; ban police use of firearms, batons, riot shields, and chemical agents; release prisoners serving time for marijuana-related offenses or resisting arrest and expunge their records; mandatory retrials for people of color serving sentences for violent crimes; prison abolition; reform of education to increase the focus on black and Native American history; rent control, and the reversal of gentrification; free college; and free public housing. There was internal debate over how many demands to put forward, as some believed the protests were the start of a larger revolution while others asserted police brutality should remain as the immediate focus.

On June 10, approximately 1,000 protesters marched to the Seattle City Hall demanding the resignation of Mayor Durkan.

Security

A sticker in the zone declaring "POLICE NOT WELCOME"

Protesters accepted the open carry of firearms as a provision of safety. Members of the self-described anti-fascist, anti-racist, and pro-worker Puget Sound John Brown Gun Club (PSJBGC) were reported on June 9 as carrying rifles in the zone. Although the zone fell within the restricted area subject to Mayor Durkan's May 30 emergency order prohibiting the use of weapons including guns, her ban did not mandate enforcement. The Washington Post reported on June 12 that PSJBGC was on site but with no weapons visible, and USA Today the same day reported that "no one appeared armed with a gun". Reporters from a Tacoma-based Fox affiliate were chased out of the zone by occupants on June 9.

During the occupation, area businesses hired private protection services, including Iconic Global, Homeland Patrol Division, and Fortress Security, that deployed men and women, some in uniform and others in plain clothes, armed with AR-15 style rifles and pepper spray, to patrol the zone on foot and in SUVs. Volunteers within the area also formed an informal group to provide security, with an emphasis on de-escalation tactics and preventing vandalism.

On June 15, KIRO-TV reported a break-in and fire at an auto shop located near the zone, to which the SPD did not respond; Police Chief Best later stated that officers observed the building from a distance and saw no sign of disturbance. On June 16, Seattle's KIRO-TV quoted an eight-year tenant of an apartment near the East Precinct as saying, "We are just sitting ducks all day. Now every criminal in the city knows they can come into this area and they can do anything they want as long as it isn't life-threatening, and the police won't come in to do anything about it." Frustrated by blocked streets, criminal behavior, and lawlessness, some residents temporarily moved out and others installed security cameras. A man who said he "100 percent" supports the protest told KOMO-TV: "I don't even feel safe anymore."

On June 18, a volunteer medic intervened during a sexual assault within a tent inside the occupied park area which resulted in the arrest of the alleged perpetrator. That same day, NPR reported, "Nobody inside the protest zone thinks a police return would end peacefully. Small teams of armed anti-fascists are also present, self-proclaimed community defense forces who say they're ready to fight if needed but that de-escalation is preferred."

Lincoln Reservoir in Cal Anderson Park tagged with "George Floyd"

Outside threats from Proud Boys and Patriot Prayer

From inception, there were reports that protesters at CHOP were aware of the threat posed by the far-right groups Patriot Prayer, active in the Pacific Northwest, and the Proud Boys, a national neo-fascist hate group. On June 15, armed members of the Proud Boys appeared in the zone at a Capitol Hill rally. This group of the Proud Boys aimed to confront what they called "authoritarian behaviour" by the protesters, with the resulting video of the clashes going viral.

Proud Boys affiliate and known brawler, Tusitala "Tiny" Toese was filmed in the zone while punching a man and breaking his cell phone on June 15. Toese has long been known in the Pacific Northwest for engaging in fights, first as a leading member of Patriot Prayer and after early 2019, as an openly chauvinist member of the Proud Boys. He has been described as "the right-wing protester most frequently arrested in Portland." Toese is a resident of Washington state and the subject of several reports by Portland's Willamette Week. He has not been prosecuted for violent offenses despite his own confession and witnesses confirming assault, lending to accusations that law enforcement is enabling his behavior. He was later arrested for violating his probation due to video evidence that showed him assaulting the man in CHOP.

The Seattle Police Department blotter page about the order to clear the area of protesters listed FBI reported law enforcement incidents in the area. It shows 37 incidents in 2019 and 65 incidents through June 30, 2020. Crime in the area from June 2–June 30 rose 525 percent compared to the same period in 2019. In addition to two homicides and two non-fatal shootings, the increase included narcotics use, violent crimes such as rape, robbery, and assault, and elevated gang activity.

Shootings

Prior to the zone

June 7

On June 7, the day prior to the zone's founding, a man drove into a crowd of protesters. He was intercepted by a protester who reached into his car and tried to stop him, before being shot by the driver. The victim suffered a gunshot wound in his upper right arm but was expected to recover fully within a year. The driver was charged with first degree assault.

During the zone

June 20

In the early morning hours of June 20, two people were shot in seperate incidents in the Capitol Hill neighborhood at the edge of the protest zone. It was unclear if the shootings were connected to the protests. An analysis by KUOW, based on 911 transcripts, video recordings, and eyewitness testimony, suggested that miscommunication between SPD and the Seattle Fire Department slowed the emergency response.

Emergency dispatchers received the first reports of gunshots (at 10th Avenue and East Pine Street) at 2:19 a.m.. A 19-year-old Black man, Horace Lorenzo Anderson Jr, was transported to Harborview Medical Center with multiple gunshot wounds by volunteer medics, but was pronounced dead shortly afterward, at 2:53 a.m. A local rapper known as "Lil Mob", Anderson had graduated from high school the previous day.

The second victim, 33-year-old, DeJuan Young, was found by a former nurse who, along with the help of a volunteer medic, determined he had two gunshot wounds. Young reported that he went to leave after hearing the first shooting but was surrounded by a group of men, called a racist term, and shot at repeatedly while at 11th and Pike. Transported to Harborview by 3:06 a.m., he was in critical condition the following day. KIRO-TV reported that Young was shot by different people a block away from where Anderson was mortally wounded. Young said "I was shot by, I'm not sure if they're Proud Boys or KKK, but the verbiage that they said was hold this 'N-----' and shot me." He expressed concern that his case was not being properly investigated due to the perception that protesters had "asked for the police not to be there, so don't act like ya'll need them now.'" However, Young was outside the zone during the shooting. "I was in Seattle streets," he said. "So what's the excuse now?"

Armed police eventually entered the zone in riot gear but were informed by protesters that "The victim left the premises!" City Council member Lisa Herbold, chair of the public safety committee, said the suggestion that the crowd interfered with access to victims "defies belief". SPD was reviewing public-source video and body camera video, but no suspects were in custody and a motive had not been determined. CHOP representatives alleged that the individuals involved had a history, which seemed to escalate because of "gang affiliations".

June 21

Another shooting occurred on June 21, the second such incident in the zone in less than 48 hours. After being transported in a private vehicle to Harborview Medical Center, a 17-year-old male was treated for a gunshot wound to the arm and released. He declined to speak with SPD detectives.

On June 22, Mayor Durkan said the violence was distracting from the message of thousands of peaceful protesters. "We cannot let acts of violence define this movement for change," she said, adding that the city "will not allow for gun violence to continue in the evenings around Capitol Hill." The mayor announced that officials are working with the community to bring the zone to an end. "It's time for people to go home," she said, "to restore order and eliminate the violence on Capitol Hill."

At the same press conference, Police Chief Best spoke of "groups of individuals engaging in shootings, a rape, assault, burglary, arson and property destruction." She added, "I cannot stand by, not another second and watch another black man, or anyone really, die in our streets while people aggressively thwart the efforts of police and other first responders from rescuing them."

June 23

On June 23, there was a third shooting near the zone, leaving a man in his thirties with wounds that were not life-threatening. SPD was reportedly investigating, but the victim refused to provide information about the attack or describe a suspect.

June 29

A fourth shooting in the vicinity of the zone occurred in the early morning hours of June 29. A 16-year-old African American male named Antonio Mays Jr. was killed and a 14-year-old male was in critical condition with gunshot injuries. Mays was a resident of San Diego, California and reportedly left home for Seattle a week earlier. In video from that night, a series of 12 - 13 gunshots can be heard at approximately 2:54 a.m., just before a voice yells warning of "multiple vehicles"; "multiple shooters"; and a "stolen white jeep" as protesters scramble into position. This is followed by a five minute lull before another 18 gunshots can be heard as the white jeep crashes into a barricade or portable toilet.

While searching for evidence, SPD discovered that the crime scene had been disturbed. Police have made no arrests in any of the shootings at CHOP since June 20. According to Marty Jackson, a volunteer medic who witnessed the event, CHOP's security forces shot at an SUV that the teenagers crashed into a concrete barrier.

Reactions

Local

Mayor Jenny Durkan called the creation of the zone an attempt to "de-escalate interactions between protesters and law enforcement", while Seattle Police Chief Carmen Best said that her officers would look at different approaches to "reduce [their] footprint" in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. City Council member Kshama Sawant, who belongs to the Trotskyist Socialist Alternative party, spoke to the occupants of Cal Anderson Park on June 8, 2020. She called for the protesters to turn the precinct into a community center for restorative justice.

On June 10, Assistant Police Chief Deanna Nollette said in a news conference, "We're trying to get a dialogue going so we can figure out a way to resolve this without unduly impacting the citizens and the businesses that are operating in that area." She said police had received reports that "armed individuals" were running barricades set up by protesters as checkpoints, "intimidat[ing] community members", and that police had "heard anecdotally" of residents and businesses being asked to pay a fee to operate in the area, adding, "This is the crime of extortion." The following day, Best said the police had not received "any formal reports" of extortion, and the Greater Seattle Business Association said they "found no evidence of this occurring". On June 11, the SPD announced their desire to re-enter the abandoned East Precinct building, and said they still operated within the zone's territory. Governor Jay Inslee, on the same day, said the zone was "unpermitted" but "largely peaceful". On June 12, Police Chief Best said, "Rapes, robberies and all sorts of violent acts have been occurring in the area and we have not been able to get to it." In the early morning hours of June 12, an unknown man set a fire at the East Precinct building and walked away; community residents extinguished the flames before they could spread beyond the building's external wall or to the nearby tents. Later that day, Mayor Durkan visited the zone and told a New York Times reporter that she did not know of any serious crime that was reported in the area.

On June 16, a deal was struck between CHOP representatives and the city to "rezone" the occupied area to allow better street access for businesses and local services. On June 17, KING-TV reported that some are frustrated with the occupation of the area near their homes. One couple commented: "What you want from a home is a stress-free environment. You want to be able to sleep well, you want to feel comfortable and we just don't feel comfortable right now." KING-TV reported also receiving anonymous emails from other local residents expressing "real concerns". On June 18, unease was reportedly being expressed by many black protesters about the zone and its use of Black Lives Matter slogans. According to NPR, "Black activists say there must be follow-through to make sure their communities remain the priority in a majority-white protest movement whose camp has taken on the feel of a neighborhood block party that's periodically interrupted by chants of 'Black Lives Matter!'"

Artwork at entrance on Pine St. & 11th Ave. on June 24

On June 22, the Mayor of Seattle and the Chief of Police stated in a press conference that the police would reoccupy the East Precinct "peacefully and in the near future". No specific timeline was provided. On June 24, CNN quoted the "de facto CHOP leader," hip-hop artist Raz Simone, as saying "a lot of people are going to leave—a lot of people already left" the zone.

Also on June 24, Mayor Durkan proposed a hiring freeze on the police force and a $20 million cut to the SPD budget, a reduction of roughly 5% for the remainder of 2020 as part of an effort to compensate for a revenue shortfall and unforeseen expenses due to the coronavirus epidemic. During a public-comment period, some community members said that the budget cut should be larger and that SPD funds should be redirected to housing and healthcare-related spending. The same day, a dozen businesses, residents and property owners filed a class-action lawsuit in federal court against the City of Seattle, which they alleged had deprived them of due process by tolerating the zone. Stating that they do not wish "to undermine CHOP participants' message or present a counter-message", the plaintiffs declared that their legal rights were "overrun" by the city's "unprecedented decision to abandon and close off an entire city neighborhood", isolating them from the city's services. The plaintiffs seek compensation for lost business, property damage and deprivation of their property rights, plus restoration of full public access.

On June 30, Community Roots Housing, a public development authority that owns 13 properties housing 694 people in CHOP's vicinity, called for shutting down the protest zone. "These residents have become victims of an occupation better characterized today by its violence, chaos and killings than anything else," the organization wrote. "Forcing us to choose between anarchy and police brutality is a false dichotomy. Compassion and law-enforcement should not be mutually exclusive."

At 5:28 a.m. on July 1, Seattle mayor Jenny Durkan issued an executive order declaring "gathering in this area an unlawful assembly requiring immediate action from city agencies, including the Police Department." More than 100 police officers, with help from the FBI, moved into the area and tweeted a warning that anyone remaining or returning would be subject to arrest. By day's end, 44 people had been arrested, and overnight another 25 were taken into custody. Seattle police also posted a video on YouTube containing examples of violent incidents in the Capitol Hill area.

After reclaiming the East Precinct, the SPD maintained road blocks in the area and restricted access to local residents, workers and business proprietors. Some businesses reported that the continued police presence deterred customers.

National

Donald J. Trump Twitter
@realDonaldTrump

Radical Left Governor @JayInslee and the Mayor of Seattle are being taunted and played at a level that our great Country has never seen before. Take back your city NOW. If you don’t do it, I will. This is not a game. These ugly Anarchists must be stopped IMMEDIATELY. MOVE FAST!

June 11, 2020

On June 9, U.S. Senator Ted Cruz from Texas stated that the zone was "endangering people's lives". The next day, President Donald Trump demanded that Governor Inslee and Mayor Durkan "take back" the zone, saying that if they did not do it, he would do it for them. Inslee condemned Trump's involvement in the situation, telling him to "stay out of Washington state's business". Trump followed up by calling the protesters "domestic terrorists". Durkan told President Trump to "go back to [his] bunker". On June 11, Durkan responded further, saying that the president wanted to tell a story about domestic terrorists with a radical agenda to fit his law and order initiatives, but that lawfully expressing first amendment rights to demand better of society was patriotism, not terrorism.

USA Today described the zone as a "protest haven", while the World Socialist Web Site described it as an "anarchistic commune". Conservative pundit Guy Benson mocked the occupation of Capitol Hill as "communist cosplay". National Review contrasted the mainstream media coverage of the zone, which they deemed as sympathetic, to the negative coverage of the 2016 Malheur National Wildlife Refuge occupation.

On June 12, the Fox News website published digitally altered photographs of the area, to include a man armed with an assault rifle from earlier Seattle protests; also added to the photographs were smashed windows from other parts of Seattle. In a separate incident, the Fox News website ran articles about protests in Seattle; however, the accompanying photo of a burning city was actually taken in Saint Paul, Minnesota the previous month. "Fox's coverage contributed to the appearance of armed unrest", stated The Washington Post. The manipulated and wrongly used images were removed, with Fox News stating that it "regrets these errors". On June 15, Monty Python co-founder John Cleese mocked a Fox News anchorwoman for reading on air a Reddit post indicating purported "signs of rebellion" within the zone, which turned out to be a joke referencing a scene from Monty Python and the Holy Grail.

Protesters in other cities sought to replicate the autonomous zone in their own communities. Protesters in Portland, Oregon and in Asheville, North Carolina tried to create autonomous zones but were stopped by police. On June 12, Tennessee Governor Bill Lee condemned attempts to create an autonomous area in Nashville, warning protesters in the state that "Autonomous zones, and violence will not be tolerated." In Philadelphia, a group established an encampment that was compared to the Seattle occupation; however, their primary focus was not autonomy but to protest Philadelphia's anti-homelessness laws. In what CNN called "an apparent reference to the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ) in Seattle," protesters on June 22 spray-painted "BHAZ", standing for Black House Autonomous Zone, on the pillars of St. John's Episcopal Church, which sits across the street from Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C. The next day, President Trump tweeted, "There will never be an 'Autonomous Zone' in Washington, D.C., as long as I'm your President. If they try they will be met with serious force!" Twitter placed a public interest notice on Trump's tweet for violating the company's policy against abusive behavior—"specifically," Twitter explained, "the presence of a threat of harm against an identifiable group."

Politico reported that CHAZ "was a recurring theme throughout” debate by the U.S. House Judiciary Committee of the Democrat-sponsored police reform bill, on June 17. Rep. Debbie Lesko (R-Ariz.) offered an amendment to cut off federal police grants to any municipality that allows an autonomous zone. Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-Wash.), whose district includes CHAZ, blamed Fox News and "right-wing media pundits" for spreading misinformation. The bill was eventually approved by a majority-Democratic vote.

On July 1, 2020, commenting on expulsion of protesters from the zone that day by police, U.S. Attorney General William Barr commended SPD Chief Best "for her courage and leadership in restoring the rule of law in Seattle." White House Press Secretary Kayleigh McEnany said, "I am pleased to inform everyone that Seattle has been liberated ... Anarchy is anti-American, law and order is essential, peace in our streets will be secured." The next day, President Trump said, "I'm glad to see, in Seattle, they took care of the problem, because as they know, we were going in to take. We were ready to go in and they knew that too. And they went in and they did what they had to do."

Aftermath

Portrait of Charleena Lyles in CHOP

Protests continued in the streets of Seattle after the sweep of the CHOP zone. The night of July 19, according to SPD statements, saw vandalism in the Capitol Hill area and a firework thrown into the East Precinct, starting a small fire that was rapidly extinguished.

Donnitta Sinclair Martin, the mother of Lorenzo Anderson, filed a wrongful death claim against the city, alleging that the police and fire department had failed to protect or provide medical assistance for her son, and that the city's decisions had created a dangerous environment.

Late at night on July 23, a group of 150 people returned to the Capitol Hill neighborhood and vandalized several businesses, including a shop owned by a relative of one of the police officers who fatally shot Charleena Lyles, a pregnant black woman, at home in 2017.

On July 25, several thousand protesters gathered in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle for demonstrations in solidarity with Portland, Oregon. Tensions escalated in the neighboring city in early July after the Trump administration deployed federal forces against the wishes of local officials, stirring controversy and regenerating the protests. The Department of Homeland Security deployed an undisclosed number of federal agents to Seattle on July 23, without notifying local officials, adding to anxieties for the city's residents. A July 25 march by the Youth Liberation Front gathered peacefully for several hours in the early afternoon but it was designated a riot by the SPD after the protests devolved into property destruction towards several businesses, fires were started in five construction trailers near a future juvenile detention center, and several employees of the youth jail had their vehicles severely vandalized. The actions on July 25 resulted in the arrest of 47 people, with 21 police officers injured. Crosscut reported that many marchers participated on July 25 out of an understanding that the two central issues of the protest, police brutality and federal overreach, were deeply connected.

References

  1. ^ Nadeau, Barbie Latza (June 20, 2020). "Seattle Police Investigate Shooting Inside CHAZ". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  2. ^ Sun, Deedee (June 9, 2020). "Armed protesters protect East Precinct police building after officers leave area". KIRO. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  3. ^ "Seattle police clear CHOP protest zone". The Seattle Times. July 1, 2020. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  4. ^ McNichols, Joshua. "CHAZ chews on what to do next". KUOW-FM. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  5. ^ Elfrin, Tim (June 11, 2020). "'This is not a game': Trump threatens to 'take back' Seattle as protesters set up 'autonomous zone'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  6. ^ Silva, Daniella; Moschella, Matteo (June 11, 2020). "Seattle protesters set up 'autonomous zone' after police evacuate precinct". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  7. ^ Burns, Chase (June 10, 2020). "The Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone Renames, Expands, and Adds Film Programming". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  8. ^ Burns, Chase; Smith, Rich; Keimig, Jasmyne (June 9, 2020). "The Dawn of 'Free Capitol Hill'". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  9. Simon, Dan; Reeve, Elle; Silverman, Hollie (June 15, 2020). "Protesters have occupied part of Seattle's Capitol Hill for a week. Here's what it's like inside". CNN. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  10. "Seattle-area protests: Live updates on Saturday, June 13". The Seattle Times. June 13, 2020. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  11. ^ Weill, Kelly (June 16, 2020). "The Far Right Is Stirring Up Violence at Seattle's Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  12. ^ Burns, Katelyn (June 16, 2020). "Seattle's newly police-free neighborhood, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  13. ^ "'We need help': Neighbors concerned after deadly shooting in Seattle's CHOP zone". King 5. June 20, 2020. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  14. Savransky, Becca (June 15, 2020). "How CHAZ became CHOP: Seattle's police-free zone explained". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020. Known as the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ) at first, several protesters in the area made a push for the name to better reflect its purpose and renamed the roughly six-block area. CHOP, the new acronym, now stands for the Capitol Hill Organized (or Occupied) Protest.
  15. ^ Dwilson, Stephanie Dube (June 10, 2020). "'You're Now Leaving the USA': Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone Declared in Seattle". Heavy. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  16. ^ Rufo, Christopher F. (June 10, 2020). "Anarchy in Seattle". City Journal. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  17. ^ "Seattle Police clearing CHOP area after Durkan issues executive order". KOMO. July 1, 2020. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  18. ^ Gardner, James Ross (June 9, 2020). "A Seattle Activist's Fight to Keep the Focus on Police Abuse". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  19. ^ Moreno, Joel (June 9, 2020). "Driver claiming self-defense in Capitol Hill protest shooting has ties to police". KOMO. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  20. ^ Hu, Jane C. (June 16, 2020). "What's Really Going On at Seattle's So-Called Autonomous Zone?". Slate. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020. On June 1, protesters began demonstrating at SPD’s Capitol Hill precinct building nightly, and most nights, police used flash-bangs and chemical irritants like pepper spray and tear gas to disperse the crowd around the barriers it erected in the blocks surrounding the precinct— including June 7, just two days after Mayor Jenny Durkan announced a 30-day moratorium on tear gas." "Activists turned police's barriers around and declared that the surrounding area—roughly 5½ city blocks, which includes a public park—would be for the people.
  21. ^ Kroman, David (June 5, 2020). "Seattle issues 30-day ban on tear gas at protests". Crosscut. Archived from the original on June 27, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  22. ^ "Seattle-area protests: Live updates for Sunday, June 7". The Seattle Times. June 7, 2020. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  23. ^ Jimenez, Esmy; Raftery, Isolde (June 8, 2020). "'They gave us East Precinct.' Seattle Police backs away from the barricade". KUOW. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  24. ^ Gupta, Arun (July 2, 2020). "Seattle's CHOP Went Out With Both a Bang and a Whimper". The Intercept. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  25. ^ Frohne, Lauren; Chin, Corinne; Dompor, Ramon (July 4, 2020). "'The Uprising': Watch how Seattle's protests have evolved". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  26. ^ Chappell, Bill (July 1, 2020). "Seattle Police Clear Capitol Hill Protest Zone After Mayor Issues Emergency Order". NPR. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  27. ^ "Huge Black Lives Matter mural in progress on Capitol Hill street". KIRO 7 News. June 11, 2020.
  28. ^ Read, Bridget (June 11, 2020). "What's Going On in CHAZ, the Seattle Autonomous Zone?". The Cut. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  29. ^ Rietmulder, Michael (June 17, 2020). "Meet CHOP's original house band: Seattle's Marshall Law Band soundtracks a movement". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  30. ^ Allam, Hannah (June 18, 2020). "'Remember Who We're Fighting For': The Uneasy Existence Of Seattle's Protest Camp". NPR. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  31. McBride, Jessica (June 12, 2020). "Seattle Autonomous Zone Videos: What It's Like Inside the CHAZ". Heavy.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  32. ^ Hughes, Trevor (June 14, 2020). "In Seattle's Capitol Hill autonomous protest zone, some Black leaders express doubt about white allies". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  33. "Seattle will move to dismantle protest zone, mayor says". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  34. ^ "Live updates: Protesters establish 'Free Capitol Hill' near East Precinct". MyNorthwest. KIRO-FM. June 9, 2020. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  35. Grygiel, Chris (June 12, 2020). "Q&A: What's next for Seattle protesters' 'autonomous zone'?". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  36. Carlton, Jim (June 12, 2020). "Seattle Protesters Negotiate Over Leaving 'Autonomous Zone'". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  37. ^ Gutman, David (June 16, 2020). "Seattle shrinks CHOP area with street barriers". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  38. ^ Cornwell, Paige (June 24, 2020). "Seattle's CHOP shrinking, but demonstrators remain". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  39. Gutman, David (June 25, 2020). "New Black-led group at CHOP says protesters will decide how long they'll stay". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  40. Del Rosario, Simone (June 25, 2020). "CHOP protesters staying put at Seattle police precinct". KCPQ. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  41. Mutasa, Tammy (June 25, 2020). "Future of 'CHOP' still in the air while neighbors worry about future violence". KOMO-TV. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020. The crowds have definitely thinned out in the past 48 hours.
  42. ^ Graham, Nathalie (June 22, 2020). "City of Seattle Exploits Shootings to Crack Down on CHOP". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  43. ^ Gutman, David; Brodeur, Nicole (June 22, 2020). "Seattle police will return to East Precinct, where CHOP has reigned, Durkan says". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  44. Cornwell, Paige; Hellmann, Melissa; Long, Katherine; Clarridge, Christine (June 26, 2020). "Mayor Durkan meets with protesters after city thwarted from removing barricades at CHOP". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  45. Burns, Chase; Smith, Rich (June 26, 2020). "Slog PM: COVID-19 Loves American Ignorance, Seattle School Will Be Named After an LGBTQI+ Hero". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  46. Horne, Deborah (June 28, 2020). "Seattle protest zone remains largely intact". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  47. Roberts, Paul (June 28, 2020). "CHOP organizers try to move protest out of park, focus on precinct". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  48. "1 man killed, another injured in shooting near Seattle's 'CHOP' zone Monday morning". KING-TV. June 29, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  49. ^ Brownstone, Sydney; Clarridge, Christine (June 29, 2020). "Shooting at Seattle's CHOP protest site kills one, leaves another in critical condition". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020. A 16-year-old boy was killed and a 14-year-old boy was wounded early Monday morning when they were shot at 12th Avenue and Pike Street in the protest area known as CHOP, in Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood.
  50. Johnson, Kirk (June 29, 2020). "Another Fatal Shooting in Seattle's 'CHOP' Protest Zone". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020. Two more people have been shot, one fatally, in the fourth shooting in 10 days within the boundaries of the free-protest zone.
  51. ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha (June 29, 2020). "One dead, 14-year-old injured in shooting near Seattle's Capitol Hill Organized Protest zone". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  52. "Another shooting in Seattle's protest zone leaves 1 dead". Associated Press. June 29, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  53. ^ Public Affairs (July 1, 2020). "Mayor Durkan Issues Emergency Order Regarding Capitol Hill Protest Zone". Seattle Police Department. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  54. "Seattle cops clear 'occupied' zone, more than 20 arrested". Associated Press. July 1, 2020. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  55. "Seattle police return to East Precinct". KIRO-TV. July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  56. ^ "Seattle protests: 10 more arrested; county prosecutors say they don't plan to charge nonviolent protesters". The Seattle Times. July 3, 2020. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  57. Banel, Feliks (June 5, 2020). "Long history of racial and economic unrest in Seattle". MyNorthwest. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  58. Burton, Lynsi (November 29, 2014). "WTO riots in Seattle: 15 years ago". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  59. "Occupy Seattle protesters clash with police on Capitol Hill". The Seattle Times. November 2, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  60. ^ Bush, Evan (June 10, 2020). "Welcome to the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone, where Seattle protesters gather without police". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  61. Vansynghel, Margo; Kroman, David (June 17, 2020). "The future of Capitol Hill's protest zone may lie in Seattle history | Crosscut". Crosscut. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  62. Martinson, Nicole (July 6, 2020). "CHOP May Not Have Lasted, But These Occupied Spaces Did". Seattle Met. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  63. "George Floyd protesters take to downtown Seattle streets; 7 arrested". KCPQ. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  64. Kamb, Lewis (June 9, 2020). "How ambiguity and a loophole undermined Seattle's ban on tear gas during George Floyd demonstrations". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020. Between May 30 and June 4, an average of about 71 WSP troopers assisted Seattle police during demonstrations in the city. … Groups of Washington National Guard soldiers, ranging from 74 soldiers on May 31 to 600 soldiers on June 6 and 7, also have been deployed to Seattle at the request of Seattle's Emergency Operations Center and with the governor's authorization.
  65. Del Pozo, Brandon (June 26, 2020). "Watch This Protest Turn From Peaceful to Violent in 60 Seconds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  66. Jones, Liz; Raftery, Isolde (June 10, 2020). "This 26-year-old 'died three times' after police hit her with a blast ball". KUOW. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  67. Beekman, Daniel; Brownstone, Sydney (June 8, 2020). "Seattle council members vow 'inquest' into police budget; some say mayor should consider resigning". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  68. Kamb, Lewis; Beekman, Daniel (June 5, 2020). "Seattle mayor, police chief agree to ban use of tear gas on protesters amid ongoing demonstrations". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  69. ^ Green, Sara Jean (June 10, 2020). "Prosecutors say man who shot protester on Capitol Hill likely provoked the incident". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  70. Hiruko, Ashley; Brazile, Liz (June 8, 2020). "Gunman at Seattle protest claims he feared for his life. Others paint a different picture". KUOW. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  71. Kroman, David (June 19, 2020). "Confusion, anger in Seattle Police Dept. after East Precinct exit". Crosscut.com. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  72. Kamb, Lewis (June 24, 2020). "Seattle Mayor Jenny Durkan and police Chief Carmen Best: A pairing under stress, put to the test". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  73. ^ Janavel, AJ (June 9, 2020). Protesters take over streets outside abandoned SPD East Precinct (News report which aired 7:33am local time). KCPQ (Q13). Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  74. "Seattle police clear out protester-occupied zone". BBC News. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020. (Info via a map of zone included in article)
  75. ^ Morse, Ian (June 12, 2020). "In Seattle, a 'project' toward a cop-free world". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  76. ^ Smith, Rich. "City and CHOP Residents Agree on New Footprint". SLOG. The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  77. "City of Seattle changes barriers in 'CHOP' protest zone". King 5. June 16, 2020. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  78. Durkan, Jenny. "City of Seattle Engages with Capitol Hill Organized Protest to make Safety Changes". Office of the Mayor. City Of Seattle. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  79. Scott, Hanna (June 20, 2020). "Observations from inside Seattle's CHOP". MyNorthwest.com. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  80. "Capitol Hill protest zone shifts out of Cal Anderson Park with remaining core of campers surrounding East Precinct". CHS Capitol Hill Seattle. June 24, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  81. ^ Cornwell, Paige; Clarridge, Christine (June 30, 2020). "Seattle removes some barriers at CHOP; protesters erect makeshift replacement barricade". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  82. Smith, Rich (July 1, 2020). "Mayor Orders Cops to Sweep CHOP, Protesters Vow to Keep Marching". The Stranger. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  83. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (June 12, 2020). "Seattle's CHAZ: Inside the occupied vegan paradise – and Trump's 'ugly anarchist' hell". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  84. ^ Britschgi, Christian (June 10, 2020). "Seattle Protesters Establish 'Autonomous Zone' Outside Evacuated Police Precinct — Is the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone a brave experiment in self-government or just flash-in-the-pan activism?". Reason. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  85. "Coronavirus daily news updates, June 18: What to know today about COVID-19 in the Seattle area, Washington state and the world". The Seattle Times. June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  86. ^ Weinberger, Hannah (June 15, 2020). "In Seattle's CHAZ, a community garden takes root | Crosscut". Crosscut. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  87. Baume, Matt (June 12, 2020). "Meet the Farmer Behind CHAZ's Vegetable Gardens". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  88. Scruggs, Gregory; Kornfield, Meryl (June 20, 2020). "Police enter Seattle cop-free zone after shooting kills a 19-year-old, critically injures a man". Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  89. ^ Long, Katherine K. (June 11, 2020). "Live: Seattle-area protest updates: No police reports filed about use of weapons to extort Capitol Hill businesses, Best says". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  90. Read, Richard (June 25, 2020). "Seattle's police-free zone was created in a day. Dismantling it will take much longer". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  91. "Archived copy". Section 13, Ordinance No. 106615 of March 21, 1977 (PDF). Seattle City Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020. (Seattle Municipal Code 18.12.250 Archived May 7, 2020, at the Wayback Machine) "It is unlawful to camp in any park except at places set aside and posted for such purposes by the Superintendent."
  92. Greenstone, Scott (September 3, 2018). "Why don't police enforce laws against camping in Seattle parks and streets?". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  93. ^ "Slog PM: Juneteenth Freedom Marches, Mayor Durkan Meets Mayor Teargas, Yakima Overwhelmed by COVID-19". The Stranger. June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  94. Kiley, Brendan (June 23, 2020). "'I'm still Black and my life still matters.' What is the legacy of CHOP, Seattle's 24/7 protest?". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  95. Keimig, Jasmyne (June 16, 2020). "Flash Bangs and Tear Gas Did Not Stop Marshall Law Band From Playing". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  96. Kamb, Lewis (June 11, 2020). "How the Black Lives Matter street mural came together on Seattle's Capitol Hill". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  97. ^ Miller, Ryan W. (June 12, 2020). "CHAZ, a 'no Cop Co-op': Here's what Seattle's Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone looks like". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  98. Hallie, Golden (June 11, 2020). "Seattle protesters take over city blocks to create police-free 'autonomous zone'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  99. Wafai, Yasmeen (June 19, 2020). "Juneteenth 2020 celebrations in the Seattle area". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  100. O'Connor, Rachael (June 12, 2020). "Seattle protesters' takeover of city blocks echoes 'Free Derry' of the Troubles". The Irish Post. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  101. Royale, Rosette (June 19, 2020). "Seattle's Autonomous Zone Is Not What You've Been Told". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  102. ^ Darcy, Oliver (June 11, 2020). "Right-wing media says Antifa militants have seized part of Seattle. Local authorities say otherwise". CNN. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  103. ^ "Chief says 'no cop-free zone' in Seattle during protests". Associated Press. June 16, 2020. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  104. ^ Kasprak, Alex (June 23, 2020). "Does This Video Show Raz Simone Handing Out Guns in Seattle's CHOP?". Snopes. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  105. ^ Toropin, Konstantin (June 24, 2020). "Leader of Seattle's 'autonomous zone' says many protesters are leaving". CNN. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  106. Gardner, James Ross (June 26, 2020). "Seattle's Capitol Hill Occupied Protest Has Always Been in Flux". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  107. Coldewey, Devin (July 18, 2020). "For Seattle's cop-free protest zone, tech is both a revolutionary asset and disastrous liability". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  108. King, Angela; Shepard, Kim (June 15, 2020). "From CHAZ to CHOP:". www.kuow.org. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  109. Misciagna, Vanessa (June 15, 2020). "Organizers refocus message after Seattle's CHAZ becomes CHOP". king5.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  110. Frizzelle, Christopher (June 15, 2020). "Slog AM: CHOP Is CHAZ's New Name, SPD's Budget Grew by $100 Million, Supreme Court Protects LBGTQ Workers". The Stranger. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  111. ^ Vansynghel, Margo; Kroman, David (June 17, 2020). "The future of Capitol Hill's protest zone may lie in Seattle history". Crosscut.com. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  112. Thalen, Mikael (June 10, 2020). "Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone' releases list of demands". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  113. Fink, Jenni (June 11, 2020). "List of Demands in Seattle 'Autonomous Zone' Includes Black Doctors for Black Patients, End to Prisons". Newsweek. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  114. ^ Baker, Mike (June 11, 2020). "Free Food, Free Speech and Free of Police: Inside Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  115. Smith, Rich; Keimig, Jasmyne (June 10, 2020). "Sawant Marches Through City Hall with Demonstrators Demanding Mayor Durkan's Resignation". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  116. Thalen, Mikael (June 9, 2020). "Seattle protesters set up a barricaded 'cop-free zone'". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  117. ^ Kelly, Kim (June 14, 2020). "Meet the Gun Club Patrolling Seattle's Leftist Utopia". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  118. Hightower, Kamaria (May 30, 2020). "Mayor Durkan Issues Emergency Orders Proclaiming Civil Emergency Due to Demonstrations and Banning Use of Weapons Throughout City". Mayor of Seattle. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  119. "Seattle protesters struggle to determine what's next for 'autonomous zone' as Trump lobs threats". The Washington Post. June 12, 2020. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  120. Westneat, Danny (July 1, 2020). "With cops away, it's like Capitol Hill is slipping back to the Pinkerton's era". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  121. Scruggs, Gregory (June 16, 2020). "This Seattle protest zone is police-free. So volunteers are stepping up to provide security". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  122. Keimig, Jasmyne (June 16, 2020). "Working the Night Shift at CHOP". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  123. Sun, Deedee (June 15, 2020). ""Nobody showed up": 911 calls bring no response after break in at auto shop near Capitol Hill protest zone". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  124. Horcher, Gary (June 16, 2020). ""We're sitting ducks in here": Tenants in protest zone asking SPD to resume response to crimes". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  125. Mutasa, Tammy (June 17, 2020). "Tensions in Capitol Hill mount as residents, protesters clash over access, crime". KOMO-TV. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  126. Smith, Rich (June 19, 2020). "CHOP Medic Intervened in a Sexual Assault in Cal Anderson". The Stranger. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  127. Sardarizadeh, Shayan; Wendling, Mike (June 17, 2020). "Who are Boogaloo Bois, antifa and Proud Boys?". BBC News. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  128. ^ "Notorious 'Proud Boy' arrested in Oregon after fighting in Seattle's CHOP zone". KOMO. June 25, 2020. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  129. ^ Connor, Tracy (June 25, 2020). "Proud Boy Jailed After Being Caught on Video in Seattle Protest Zone". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  130. Evans, Robert (February 11, 2019). "In Portland, A Roving Right-Wing Gang "Demasks" Left-Wing Activists". Bellingcat. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  131. ^ Shepherd, Katie (February 20, 2019). "Portland Police Built a Convincing Case Against Tusitala "Tiny" Toese for a June 2018 Assault. But Prosecutors Didn't Take It to Court". Willamette Week. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  132. Shepherd, Katie (September 12, 2017). "Patriot Prayer's Most Prolific Fighter Arrested By Multnomah County Sheriff's Office, Released Without Posting Bail". Willamette Week. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  133. Seattle Police Department. "Seattle Police Department Blotter on CHOP Clearance Order". Seattle Police Department Blotter. City of Seattle. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  134. Office of the Mayor (June 30, 2020). "Executive Order 2020-08" (PDF). City of Seattle. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  135. ^ Carter, Mike (June 20, 2020). "One dead, one in critical condition in early morning shooting at Capitol Hill protest zone known as CHOP". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  136. ^ Furfaro, Hannah (June 22, 2020). "Teen who died in CHOP shooting wanted 'to be loved,' those who knew him recall". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  137. ^ Gutman, David; Kiley, Brendan; Furfaro, Hannah; Carter, Mike (June 20, 2020). "After early morning shooting in CHOP, occupied area returns to its new normal". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  138. ^ Horne, Deborah (June 23, 2020). "Man critically injured in CHOP shooting says he was the victim of a racial attack". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  139. Hiruko, Ashley (July 26, 2020). "Seattle police claimed protesters blocked way to dying man. In fact, miscommunication with Seattle Fire was problem". KUOW-FM. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  140. Fearnow, Benjamin. "Police Investigating Shooting Inside Seattle's 'No Cop,' CHAZ Zone". Newsweek. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  141. Hitt, Tarpley (June 20, 2020). "Fatal Shooting Rocks Seattle's Protest Zone". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  142. "One dead, another injured in shooting inside CHOP zone". KIRO-TV. June 20, 2020. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  143. Robertson, Sebastian (June 24, 2020). "Man shot near CHOP says protestors saved his life, blasts police response". KING-TV. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  144. ^ Fernandez, Manny; Baker, Mike (June 20, 2020). "Fatal Shooting Brought Police Into Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  145. Public Affairs (June 20, 2020). "Homicide Investigation Inside Protest Area". Seattle Police Department. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  146. Baumann, Lisa (June 20, 2020). "Shooting in Seattle protest zone leaves 1 dead, 1 injured". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  147. "Community members outraged and saddened over fatal shooting at the CHOP". KOMO-TV. June 20, 2020. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  148. ^ Johnson, Gene (June 22, 2020). "Seattle to move to dismantle protest zone, mayor says". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  149. Vera, Amir (June 22, 2020). "17-year-old shot in Seattle protest zone". CNN. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  150. Stelloh, Tim (June 22, 2020). "Officials tell protesters to leave Seattle's 'autonomous zone'". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  151. Horne, Deborah (June 22, 2020). "'This is about life or death': City says SPD will return to East Precinct". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  152. "Police investigate 3rd shooting near Seattle protest zone". Associated Press. June 23, 2020. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  153. ^ Gutman, David; Brownstone, Sydney (July 8, 2020). "'Everybody down!': What happened at the shooting that killed a teenager and led to CHOP's shutdown". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  154. "Man killed, teen hurt in shooting near Seattle's CHOP zone". KIRO-TV. June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  155. "1 teen dead, 1 wounded in shooting at Seattle's CHOP". KUOW-FM. June 29, 2020. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  156. Mazza, Ed (June 11, 2020). "Politicians Tell Trump To Go Back To The Bunker After His Threat To 'Take Back' Seattle". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  157. ^ Andone, Dakin; Rose, Andy (June 11, 2020). "Seattle police want to return to vacated precinct in what protesters call an 'autonomous zone'". CNN. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  158. Clark, Peter A. (June 11, 2020). "Seattle Protestors Are Occupying 6 City Blocks As An 'Autonomous Zone'. Some Fear a Police Crackdown Is Imminent". Time. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  159. Sabur, Rozina (June 12, 2020). "Trump threatens to retake Seattle from 'domestic terrorists' as police hand district to protesters". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  160. "Detectives Need Help Identifying East Precinct Arson Suspect". SPD Blotter. June 12, 2020. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  161. "Live Updates on George Floyd Protests: Judge Is Assigned to Officers' Murder Trial". The New York Times. June 13, 2020. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  162. Robertson, Sebastian. "Frustrated residents near Seattle's 'CHOP' zone want their neighborhood back". KING-TV. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  163. Gutman, David; Brodeur, Nicole (June 22, 2020). "Seattle will phase down CHOP at night, police will return to East Precinct, Durkan says". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  164. Savransky, Becca (June 25, 2020). "Durkan proposes 5% budget cut to Seattle police; some protesters, councilmembers say it's not enough". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  165. ^ Johnson, Gene (June 24, 2020). "Businesses sue Seattle over 'occupied' protest zone". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  166. Takahama, Elise (June 24, 2020). "Capitol Hill residents and businesses sue city of Seattle for failing to disband CHOP". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  167. "Our story". Community Roots Housing. 2020. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  168. Clarridge, Christine; Cornwell, Paige (June 30, 2020). "Seattle removes some barriers at CHOP". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  169. Seattle Police Department Twitter Feed. "CHOP Arrest Warning Tweet". Twitter. Twitter Inc. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  170. Seattle Police Department. "Violence in the C.H.O.P". YouTube. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  171. Janavel, A. J. (July 2, 2020). "Owners say police presence following CHOP sweep is hurting business". Q13 FOX. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  172. Donald J. Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (June 11, 2020). "Radical Left Governor @JayInslee and the Mayor of Seattle are being taunted and played at a level that our great Country has never seen before. Take back your city NOW. If you don't do it, I will. This is not a game. These ugly Anarchists must be stopped IMMEDIATELY. MOVE FAST!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  173. Watson, Kathryn (June 12, 2020). "Trump threatens to "take back" Seattle's autonomous zone if leaders don't act: "This is not a game"". CBS News. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  174. Coleman, Justine (June 11, 2020). "Inslee calls on Trump to 'stay out of Washington state's business'". The Hill. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  175. Combos, Lucas (June 11, 2020). "What's Next For The 'Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone' Is Unclear". Patch. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  176. Patron, Julio; Costa, Kayla (June 19, 2020). "Socialist Alternative's Kshama Sawant promotes local police reform, Democratic Party politics". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on June 27, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  177. Garcia, Victor (June 11, 2020). "Guy Benson calls out Seattle protesters for 'playing make-believe,' 'Communist cosplay in the streets'". Fox News. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  178. Hoonhout, Tobias (June 12, 2020). "NYT and WaPo Fawn Over Seattle Autonomous Zone Anarchists". National Review. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  179. Brunner, Jim (June 15, 2020). "Fox News runs digitally altered images in coverage of Seattle's protests, Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  180. Stanley-Becker, Isaac (June 14, 2020). "Fox News removes manipulated images from coverage of Seattle protests". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  181. Blest, Paul. "Fox News Has Officially Lost Its Mind Over the Autonomous Zone in Seattle". vice.com. Vice Media LLC. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  182. "Portland abandons its own 'autonomous zone' day after establishing it". Washington Examiner. June 11, 2020. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  183. Stephanie Dube Dwilson (June 13, 2020). "Asheville Autonomous Zone Short-Lived, But Protesters May Try Again". Heavy.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  184. "Nashville Autonomous Zone: Protesters Want to Create a Second CHAZ". Heavy.com. June 13, 2020. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  185. McFall, Caitlin (June 12, 2020). "Tennessee Gov. Lee says Nashville autonomous zone won't 'be tolerated'". Fox News. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  186. "Officials Fear Growing Center City Encampment To Protest Homelessness Poses Health, Safety Threat". June 15, 2020. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  187. Rushing, Ellie (June 12, 2020). "Philadelphians experiencing homelessness build protest encampment on Ben Franklin Parkway: 'We all matter'". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  188. Tanenbaum, Michael (June 16, 2020). "Philly officials address encampment protest on Benjamin Franklin Parkway". www.phillyvoice.com. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  189. Cole, Devan; LeBlanc, Paul (June 23, 2020). "Police remove protesters' tents near White House". CNN. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  190. Robertson, Adi (June 23, 2020). "Twitter restricts Trump threat of 'serious force' against protesters". The Verge. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  191. Bresnahan, John; Ferris, Sarah (June 17, 2020). "Antifa, Big Tech, and abortion: Republicans bring culture war to police brutality debate". Politico. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  192. Office of Public Affairs (July 1, 2020). "Statement by Attorney General William P. Barr on the Restoration of Law and Order in Seattle". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  193. "Remarks by President Trump at Spirit of America Showcase". whitehouse.gov. July 2, 2020. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  194. Carter, Mike (July 19, 2020). "Police say officers injured, buildings vandalized during downtown Seattle protest". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on July 20, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  195. "Mother of CHOP shooting victim files wrongful death claim against Seattle". KOMO-TV. July 20, 2020. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  196. Green, Sara Jean (July 20, 2020). "Mother of 19-year-old fatally shot in CHOP zone files wrongful-death claim against city". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  197. "Businesses looted, pair of fires started on Capitol Hill, Seattle police say". The Seattle Times. July 23, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  198. ^ "Police and protesters clash at Seattle march". BBC News. July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  199. ^ Brownstone, Sydney; Groover, Heidi; Malone, Patrick; Baruchman, Michelle (July 25, 2020). "Youth Liberation Front protest in Seattle recalls familiar police standoffs as federal agents stay out of view". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  200. Gutman, David; Bernton, Hal (July 24, 2020). "Durkan pleads for calm as federal agents poised near Seattle". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  201. Thompson, Franque (July 26, 2020). "Seattle rioters leave a trail of destruction after looting businesses, setting 'explosive' fires". Q13 FOX. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  202. ^ "47 arrested, 21 officers injured in Seattle protests that turned violent". KIRO. July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  203. Kroman, David. "Seattle protests intensify, even though federal agents are absent | Crosscut". crosscut.com. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

External links